Ikhaya Iincwadi ezoyikisayoInkolelo Inyanga yokuZikhukhumeza yeNyanga: 'IDracula' kunye neQueerness engenakuphikwa yeBram Stoker

Inyanga yokuZikhukhumeza yeNyanga: 'IDracula' kunye neQueerness engenakuphikwa yeBram Stoker

by Waylon Jordan
1,731 imbono
I-Bram Stoker Dracula

Kukho amaxesha ngeNyanga yoKhukhumala e-iHorror endaziyo ukuba abantu abazokuyihoya ngokupheleleyo. Emva koko kukho amaxesha apho ndibethelela phantsi ukukhuselwa kwaye ndilungele ukubuyela emva. Njengoko ndibhala isihloko sale nqaku malunga Dracula-Enye yeenoveli zam endizithandayo ngalo lonke ixesha-, masithi imibono kaKurt Russell noBilly Baldwin bayadanisa entlokweni yam.

Ke, nantsi ...

Kwiminyaka emalunga ne-125 ukusukela oko Dracula yapapashwa okokuqala, sifunde lukhulu malunga nathi nangendoda eyabhala mhlawumbi eyona noveli idume kakhulu ye-vampire ngalo lonke ixesha, kwaye inyani yile, uBram Stoker wayeyindoda echithe ixesha elininzi lobomi bayo njengomntu omdala ikhathazekile ngamanye amadoda .

Umboniso A: Walt Whitman

Xa wayeneminyaka engamashumi amabini anesine ubudala, uStoker oselula wabhala eyenye yeeleta ezinomdla endakha ndazifundela imbongi yaseMelika uWalt Whitman. Iqale ngoluhlobo:

Ukuba uyile ndoda ndikuthatha ukuba ube yiyo ungathanda ukufumana le leta. Ukuba awunguye andikhathali nokuba uyayithanda okanye awuyithandi kwaye ndicela kuphela ukuba uyifake emlilweni ungakhange ufunde kude. Kodwa ndiyakholelwa ukuba uyakuyithanda. Andiqondi ukuba kukho indoda ephilayo, nkqu nawe ongaphezulu kocalucalulo lodidi lwamadoda aneengqondo ezincinci, ongathandi ukufumana ileta evela kumntu omncinci, umfokazi, kwihlabathi liphela- indoda Ukuhlala kwimeko ekuchasayo inyani oyiculayo kunye nendlela ozicula ngayo.

UStoker angaqhubeka athethe ngomnqweno wakhe wokuthetha noWhiteman njengoko zisenziwa ziimbongi, embiza ngokuba “yinkosi,” esithi uyammonela kwaye kubonakala ngathi woyika inkululeko awayeyisebenzisa ebomini bakhe umbhali omdala. Ekugqibeleni ugqiba ngale ndlela:

Hayi indlela ekulunge ngayo ukuba yindoda eyomeleleyo esempilweni eneliso lomfazi kunye nomnqweno womntwana wokuziva ukuba angathetha nendoda enokuba yiyo ukuba inqwenela utata, kunye nomntakwabo kunye nenkosikazi emphefumlweni wayo. Andiqondi ukuba uyakuhleka, Walt Whitman, okanye ungandideli, kodwa kuyo yonke iminyhadala ndiyakubulela ngalo lonke uthando nothando ondinike lona ngokufana nohlobo lwam.

Ayisiyoxesha lokucinga ukuba uStoker wayenokuba athini "ngohlobo lwam." Nangona kunjalo, nangona kunjalo, wayengenakuzizisa ukuba athethe amagama ngokungqalileyo, edanisa ebajikeleze.

Unokufunda iileta ezipheleleyo kunye nengxoxo eqhubekayo UKUQALA KAPHA. U-Whitman wenze, enyanisweni, waphendula lo mfana, kwaye waqala imbalelwano eya kuqhubeka amashumi eminyaka ngohlobo oluthile. Of Stoker, waxelela umhlobo wakhe Horace Traubel:

Wayengumntwana osemncinci. [A] kukutshisa incwadi okanye hayi — khange ithi qatha kum ukuba ndenze nantoni na konke konke: yintoni le bendiyikhathalele ingaba ibalulekile okanye ayibalulekanga? wayehlaziyekile, enomoya opholileyo, eIreland: elo yayilixabiso elihlawulwe ngokwamkelwa-kwaye ngokwaneleyo: wamkelekile!

Kwiminyaka kamva, uStoker wayeza kuba nethuba lokudibana nesithixo sakhe amaxesha amaninzi. Ngo-Whitman, wabhala:

Ndamfumana konke endakha ndaphupha ngaye, okanye endandinqwenela kuye: enkulu, ebanzi, ejonge ngokubanzi, enyamezelayo ukuya kwinqanaba lokugqibela; uvelwano; ukuqonda ngengqondo ebonakala ngathi ingaphezu komntu.

Umboniso B: Sir Sir Irving

Ngenisa impembelelo yesibini kubomi bukaStoker.

Ngo-1878, uStoker waqeshwa njengenkampani kunye nomphathi weshishini kwiLyceum Theatre eyayiphethwe kwaye iqhutywa yiIreland- kwaye abanye bathi ngumdlali weqonga owaziwa kakhulu kwihlabathi, uSir Henry Irving. Inesibindi, enkulu kunendoda yobomi eyayifuna ukuhoywa ngabo babemngqongile, yayingeloxesha kwaphela phambi kokuba naye athathe indawo ephezulu kubomi bukaStoker. Wazisa uStoker kuluntu lwaseLondon, kwaye wambeka kwisikhundla sokudibana nabanye ababhali abafana noSir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Nangona kukho ukungaqiniseki malunga nokuba umbhali ekugqibeleni waphefumlela ntoni kwimbali ye-Dracula-Vlad Tepes okanye i-Irish vampire legend Abhartach-phantse kuvunyelwene jikelele ukuba umbhali usekele inkcazo yomlinganiswa ngokwasemzimbeni ku-Irving kunye nenye yendoda ngakumbi… inamandla… iimpawu zobuntu.

Kwiphepha lika2002 leAmerican Historical Review elinesihloko esithi "uBillalo Bill Udibana neDracula: UWilliam F. Cody, uBram Stoker, kunye neFrontiers of Racial Decay," Umbhali-mbali uLouis Warren wabhala:

Iinkcazo ezininzi zikaStoker zikaIrving zihambelana ngokusondeleyo nokunikezelwa kwenani eliyintsomi ababephila ngalo abantu ngokufana. … Kodwa u-Bram Stoker waye walugcina ngaphakathi uloyiko nentiyo umqeshi wakhe awayeyiphembelela kuye, ebenza iziseko zeentsomi zakhe.

Ngo-1906, unyaka emva kokubhubha kuka-Irving, uStoker wapapasha ivolumu engobomi bomntu eneziqendu ezibini Izikhumbuzo zobuqu zikaHenry Irving.

Kubalulekile ukuba uqaphele ukuba, nangona wayeqeshwe yeqonga kangangeminyaka engama-27, waqala ngokuthatha amanqaku ukuqala Dracula malunga ne-1890 okanye njalo. Kwaye iya kuba yindoda yesithathu, ekugqibeleni ekubonakala ngathi ikhuthaze umbhali ukuba abhale usiba ephepheni ukuze aqale ibali elibalulekileyo.

Umboniso C: Oscar Wilde

Okubangela umdla kukuba, kwakuloo nyaka uStoker aqala ukusebenzela u-Irving e-Lyceum Theatre, waphinda watshata noFlorence Balcombe, ubuhle obaziwayo kunye nebhinqa elalikade linxulunyaniswa Oscar Wilde.

UStoker wayemazi uWilde ukusukela kwiminyaka yabo eyunivesithi, kwaye wade wacebisa umntu waseIreland ukuba abe lilungu leziko lefilosofi. Ngokwenyani, la madoda mabini ayenobuhlobo obuqhubekayo, obusondeleyo, kwaye nangaphezulu, mhlawumbi amashumi amabini eminyaka, kwaye indawo phakathi kwabo yaqala ukukhula kuphela emva UWilde wabanjwa phantsi kweMithetho yeSodomy yelo xesha.

Kwinqaku lakhe elithi "'Umnqweno wasendle wandithatha': Imbali yehomoerotic yedracula,” UTalia Schaffer wayenale nto yokuyithetha:

Ukucima ngononophelo kukaStoker igama likaWilde kuzo zonke iitekisi zakhe ezipapashiweyo (kunye nezingapapashwanga) kunika umfundi uluvo lokuba uStoker wayengazi nto ngobukho bukaWilde. Akukho nto inokuthi ihambele kude nenyaniso… Izinto ezingafunwa nguStokers zinokufundwa ngaphandle kobunzima obukhulu; basebenzisa ikhowudi eyaziwayo ukuba, mhlawumbi, yayilelwe ukuba yaphulwe. Kwizicatshulwa ezimalunga noWilde, uStoker uxinanise izithuba apho igama likaWilde limele ukuvela ngamagama anjengelithi “ukonakala,” “ukuhlala phantsi”, “ukuqonda,” kunye nokubhekisa ekubanjweni kwamapolisa ngababhali. Dracula Uvavanya uloyiko kunye noxinzelelo lukaStoker njengendoda evaliweyo yesini esifana nesakhe ngexesha lokuvavanywa kwetyala likaOscar Wilde.-Schaffer, Talia. "" Umnqweno wasendle wandithatha ": Imbali yehomoerotic yeDracula." ELH 61, hayi. 2 (1994): 381-425. Kufumaneka ngoJuni 9, 2021.

Ngapha koko, kwakungaphakathi kwenyanga yokubanjwa kukaWilde apho uStoker aqala khona ukubhala Dracula. Olu lwalamano luhlala luthandeka kubafundi abaninzi abaye bemba kwimbali yababhali ababini kunye nemisebenzi yabo epapashiweyo.

Kwelinye icala, unoWilde, owabhala inoveli malunga nomntu ongafiyo owayehlala ebomini bakhe evulekileyo, iziphumo zagwetywa, kwaye wathatha inxaxheba kuyo yonke into ayithandayo. Wayeyindoda emnandi kakhulu yokuhambahamba etsala onke amehlo kuye kwaye wayamkela.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uneStoker, naye wabhala inveli malunga nokungafi. Nangona kunjalo, ukungafi kukaStoker kwanyanzeleka ukuba asebenze ebusuku, efihlwe ezithunzini, iparasiti eyondla abanye kwaye ekugqibeleni "yabulawa ngokufanelekileyo" ngenxa yayo.

Akuthathi thuba lokwenyani leengcinga konke konke ukubona ezi zidalwa zibini njengemifanekiso yokuma kwababhali bazo. UWilde wabanjwa, wavalelwa entolongweni, kwaye ekugqibeleni wathunyelwa elubhacweni ngenxa yesini sakhe. UStoker wayenomtshato oqinileyo-ukuba uninzi unyulu-ngubani oza kuqhubeka athi "isodomites" kufuneka iqhutyelwe kunxweme lwase-Bhritane kakhulu njengabapolitiki abaninzi abazivaleleyo namhlanje abarhuqayo ngokuchasene ne-LBGTQ + yoluntu, ukuze babanjwe kunye ibhlukhwe phantsi xa becinga ukuba akukho mntu ujongileyo.

Kukwakhanyisela ukuba uqaphele ukuba bobabini uWilde noStoker basweleke ngenxa yeengxaki ezivela kwigcushuwa, i-STD eyaneleyo eVictorian London ukuba ngandlel 'ithile iziva ngathi ijonge ngakumbi ubudlelwane bayo, kodwa ayikho apha naphaya.

Kwincwadi yakhe, Into egazini: Ibali elingaziwayo leBram Stoker, Indoda eyabhala iDracula, UDavid J. Skal uthi into ebonakalayo yeWilde inokufumaneka kuwo onke amaphepha e Dracula, kufana nokubona ubungqingili bukaWilde buxhonywe ngaphezulu kobomi bukaStoker. UWilde wayeyisithunzi sikaStoker. Wayengu-doppelganger wakhe owayenobuganga bokwenza into engenakwenziwa yile ndoda okanye ayinako ukuyenza.

IDracula kaBram Stoker

IDracula yoHlelo lokuQala lweBram Stoker

Umzabalazo wangaphakathi weStoker ukwiphepha ngalinye le- Dracula. Inzame yakhe yokuxolelanisa umnqweno kunye nesazisi kunye neemvakalelo zokungaqiniseki kwaye ewe, ngamanye amaxesha ukuzithiba okubekwe kuye kwaye kufundiswe kuye luluntu olwenza ubugqwetha bungekho mthethweni buqingqwe kuwo wonke umhlathi.

Umntu akunyanzelekanga ukuba anike incwadi ufundelo olungeleleneyo ukuze ayifumane. Kukho amaxesha amaninzi kulo lonke ibali apho ubungqingili, enye into, kunye nokutsiba okuvela kwiphepha.

Cinga indawo ye-vampire ngaphezulu kweHarker xa abatshakazi besondela kuye. Ugubungela umntu ngomzimba wakhe, ebeka ibango kuye. Okanye mhlawumbi ulwalamano oluphambili noluzithobayo phakathi kukaDracula noRenfield olubona olu luphambene nomnqweno wokukhonza?

Isenzo sokondla i-vampiric, ukukhupha igazi lobomi ngokuluma kuthatha indawo yokungena ngokwesondo kangangokuba nakwimeko yokuqala yefilimu yenoveli, abalawuli kunye nababhali bayalelwa ukuba i-Count inokuluma kuphela abasetyhini ukuba basuse nayiphi na into Isiphakamiso sobungqingili okanye ubungqingili.

Ngapha koko, ngexesha leKhowudi yeHays, ekuphela kwendlela abanokuphuma ngayo kubandakanya nantoni na elolo hlobo kungenxa yokuba uDracula wayengumntu okhohlakeleyo kwaye wayeza kufa. Nokuba kunjalo akunakubhalwa khowudi kwaye kuphakanyiswe, kodwa kungaze kuboniswe.

Oku, ewe, kukhokelele kwizizukulwana zonke zababukeli bemiboniso bhanyabhanya abangazange bafunde imithombo yolwazi yoqobo kwaye ngekhe babone ubungqongqo bendalo Dracula. Ngabantu ababonakala kumacandelo amagqabaza xa amanqaku anje epapashwa kwaye begxeka ababhali, besithi senze lo mxholo, kwaye sizama nje ukunyanzela imixholo ye-LGBTQ + apho ingekhoyo.

Ngokwenyani, yiyo loo nto ndingakhange ndikhankanye iifilimu kude kube ngoku. Le ngxoxo imile ngokuqinileyo kwinoveli yantlandlolo nakwindoda eyayibumbayo: indoda eyayiphantse yabelana ngesini kwaye mhlawumbi isisitabane, umbhali owayesilwa nobuni kunye nomnqweno owadala ibali elingenakufa njengesihloko, kwaye indoda ezinikele ubomi bayo bonke kwamanye amadoda ebomini bayo iye yaziswa kuphela kule minyaka ingamashumi amathathu idlulileyo.

Isishwankathelo sokugqibela

Kukho abantu ngokungathandabuzekiyo abaye bayeka ukufunda eli nqaku emva komhlathi wokuqala okanye emibini-abanye abayenzanga nangaphaya kwesihloko. Kwabo baye banyamezela, okokuqala nditsho enkosi. Okwesibini ndiyakucela ukuba ujonge impendulo yakho kolu lwazi ngaphambi kokuba uphendule.

Cinga ngaphambi kokuba ukhwaze, "Ngubani okhathalayo?" Ewe, usenokungakhathali. Ewe, olu lwazi alunakuthetha nto kuwe konke konke. Isibindi sakho sokucinga ukuba oko kuthetha ukuba ulwazi alunamsebenzi kuye wonke umntu okwiplanethi, ngokunjalo.

Ukuba yinxalenye yoluntu oluhlelelekileyo kuhlala kuthetha ukuba iimbali zethu ziyatshatyalaliswa okanye zivaliwe kuthi. Abantu abangenayo imbali kubonakala ngathi abangawo kwaphela. Silawulwa kukusilela kwethu kolwazi malunga neziqu zethu, kwaye abo bangekho kuluntu banokwenza ngokulula ngakumbi ngathi sisiphambeko esitsha kwindalo eyadalwa ngoo-1970.

Ke, oko akunakuthetha nto kuwe, kodwa ngokuqinisekileyo kuthetha okuthile kumalungu oluntu lwe-LGBTQ + nabo boyikisayo abalandeli ukuba bazi ukuba enye yeenoveli ezothusayo zexesha lonke yabhalwa yindoda eyabelana ngemizabalazo yethu kunye nokulwa nesazisi sakhe ngendlela uninzi lwethu olunayo.

Oko kufanelekile ngo-2021, kwaye leyo yingxoxo yeNyanga yoKhukhumala iya kuqhubeka ikhuthaza.